Old Testament Survey – The Book Of Exodus

The Book Of Exodus

Introduction: Exodus means “going out.” The Book records  the redemption of Israel out of Egyptian bondage. These were the descendants of Abraham. This Book sets forth, in type, all redemption.  Expressions of our redemption are worship, fellowship and service; and so Exodus is a type of the conditions upon which all relationships with God exist.

Broadly, this Book teaches that redemption is essential to any relationship with a holy God and that even a redeemed people cannot have fellowship with God unless they are constantly cleansed from defilement. The time had come to return to the Promised land.  There are three basic areas of Exodus: 1. The Law  2. The Tabernacle  3. The Exodus.

Genesis showed us the calling out of a people for God. They were called out and produced through one family, Abraham. God changed his name to Israel. In Exodus, we see that family formed into a nation, Israel. God gave them a code of Laws and a personal place in which to meet. Both of these things separated them from the rest of the world.

Exodus shows us the doctrine of redemption by the blood. God redeems Israel from bondage in Egypt which is a typology of redemption of man through the blood of Christ. This is shown by the power of God as we will see in the Passover Lamb.

 The Children Of Israel who Came Into Egypt

  1. Exodus 1:1-6 70 people came into Egypt also Genesis 46:27
  2. Exodus 12:30 they spent 430 years in Egypt
  3. Exodus 12:37 those who came out of Egypt – 600,000 men
  4. Numbers 1:46 – the Levites were not counted in the number
  5. Numbers 3:30 – 22,000 Levites
  6. A conservative number of the Children of Israel who came out of Egypt was approximately from 1 to 2 million

  What Was The Cause Of The Exodus?

  1. A new king, a change of dynasty Exodus 1:8
  2. vs 7 – probably as many Jews as Egyptians
  3. vs 11 the Egyptians put Taskmasters over them vs 12-14
  4. Pharaoh is a title, such as,  a king

God Prepares A Man To Lead Israel

Three 40 year time periods in the life of Moses

40 years in the House of Pharaoh Exodus 2:1-10 where he was preserved, adopted and trained in Egyptian wisdom

Hebrews 11:23-26; Acts 7:20-23

40 years as a shepherd – Ex. 2:15- 4:31

40 years leading the Israelites

The number 40, in the Bible, represents a “time of  testing.”

  1. Exodus 2:11-14 Moses kills an Egyptian; this is the end of his first 40 years
  2. Moses ruined his testimony
  3. Moses is out of God’s will and is set aside for 40 years – to learn
  4. Moses and the burning bush Exodus 3
  5. vs 2 – the bush was not consumed
  6. vs 3 – Moses turns to see why the bush is not burnt
  7. some lessons from the burning bush
  8. Moses had burnt himself out – his life was a “pile of ashes” after he killed the Egyptian
  1. the bush was burning – but – NO pile of ashes; what was the secret?

(1) God was in the bush

(2) God was not in Moses act of killing the Egyptian

(3) I believe Moses presumed that Israel would follow him because of who he was-

– remember … his education etc. in Egypt and in the house of Pharaoh

(4) Moses learns an object lesson here – the difference is God. Self gets in the way;

God never gets in the way.

(5) If God could use a bush, with no brain, no eyes, mouth, heart etc. could he not use

Moses – OR you and I?

(6) God reveals Himself to Moses and calls Moses to do a job vs 6, 10, 14

Moses Makes Excuses Why He Cannot Serve or Obey God

  1. The unbelief of the people Chapter 4:1
  2. Moses inability to convey the message vs 10
  3. contrast this with Acts 7:22
  4. vs 14, God is angry when we make excuses

God Delivers Israel From Egypt Chapters 5-18

  1. The ten plagues on Egypt Exodus 7:8 to 12 :36
  2. River Nile turned to blood 7:17-19 To the Egyptians, the Nile was a deity
  3. Frogs 8:1-5
  4. Lice 8:16-18
  5. Flies 8:20-21
  6. Murrain – animal plague 9:3-4
  7. Boils 9:8-11
  8. Hail 9:18 & 23-26
  9. Locusts 10: 12-17
  10. Darkness 10:21-25
  11. Death of the firstborn of both man and beast or the Passover 12:1-36; I Cor. 5:7  Christ our Passover

The Passover

  1. Foretold in chapter 11
  2. Takes place chapter 12
  3. the lamb or kid to be used on the occasion to be taken from the flock the tenth day of the month, and vs 3
  4. each family to provide one lamb vs 3
  5. the lamb or kid to be a male of the first year without blemish vs 5
  6. to be killed on the fourteenth day vs 6
  7. the blood to be sprinkled on the side posts and upper post of the doors vs 7
  8. the flesh to be prepared by roasting, and not to be eaten and no part of it to be left till the morning vs 8
  9. the people to eat it with their loins girded, as persons prepared for a journey vs 11

Why called it the PASSOVER vs 23

  1. the blood sprinkled on the door posts, &c., to be a token to them of preservation from
  2.                   the destroying angel  vs 13.
  3. the fourteenth day of the month Abib to be a feast for ever vs 14.
  4. unleavened bread to be eaten seven days vs 15
  5. this also to be observed in all their generations for ever vs 17-20.
  6. Moses instructs the elders of Israel how they are to offer the lamb and sprinkle his
  7.                   blood, and for what purpose vs 21-23.
  8. he binds them to instruct their children in the nature of this rite vs 24-27.
  9. the children of Israel act as commanded vs 28.
  10. all the first-born of Egypt are slain vs 29, 30 the death angel would pass over any
  11.                   Israeli home where the blood was applied as God instructed it to be done
  12. for Israel only vs 43-46

Christ, our Passover  I Cor. 5:7  Christ the Lamb John 1:29 & 1:36         

Notes on the Passover

  1. a lamb – The Hebrew word signifies the young of sheep and of goats, and may  be indifferently translated either lamb or kid. See Ex 12:5.
  2. a lamb for a house – The whole host of Israel was divided into twelve tribes. The 12 tribes divided into families, the families into houses, and the houses into particular persons; Numbers 1, Joshua  7:14.
  3. and if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next unto his  house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.  Ex. 12:4
  4. if the household be too little:  That is, if there be not persons enough in one family to eat a whole lamb, then two families must join together.  The rabbis allow that there  should be at least ten persons to one paschal lamb, and not more than twenty.
  5. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats.  Lev 22:18-21; 23:12; Mal 1:8,14; Heb 9:14; 1Pe 1:19
  6. Verse 5.   Without blemish having no natural imperfection, no disease, no deficiency

or redundancy of parts.  The Rabbi’s taught: reckoning fifty blemishes that render a

lamb or any animal, improper to be sacrificed: five in the ear, three in the eyelid,

eight  in the eye, three in the nose, six in the mouth.

  1. a male of the first year. That is, any age in the first year between eight days and twelve months.
  1. from the sheep, or from the goats – This means either; and either was equally proper

if without blemish.  The Hebrews however in general preferred the lamb to the kid.

NOTES: The day among the Jews had twelve hours, Joshua 11:9. Their first hour was about six o’clock in the morning with us.  Their sixth hour was our noon. Their ninth hour answered to our three o’clock in the afternoon. By this we may understand that the time in which Christ was crucified began at the third hour, that is, at nine o’clock in the morning, the ordinary time for the daily morning sacrifice, and ended at the ninth hour, that is, three o’clock in the afternoon, the time of the evening sacrifice, Mr 15:25,33,34,37. Wherefore their ninth hour was their hour of prayer, when they used to go into the temple at the daily evening sacrifice, Ac 3:1; and this was the ordinary time for the Passover.  It is worthy of remark that God sets no particular hour for the killing of the Passover: any time between the two evenings, i.e., between twelve o’clock in the day and the termination of twilight, was lawful.  The daily sacrifice (see Ex 29:38,39) was killed at half past the eighth hour, that is, half an hour BEFORE three in the afternoon; and it was offered up at half past the ninth hour, that is, half an hour AFTER three.  In the evening of the Passover it was killed at half past the seventh hour, and offered at half past the eighth, that is, half an hour BEFORE three: and if the evening of the Passover fell on the evening of the Sabbath, it was killed at half past the SIXTH hour, and offered at half past the SEVENTH, that is, half an hour BEFORE two in the afternoon.  The reason of this was, they were first obliged to kill the daily sacrifice, and then to kill and roast the paschal lamb, and also to rest the evening before the Passover.  Agreeably to this Maimonides says ‘the killing of the Passover is after midday, and if they kill it before it is not lawful; and they do not kill it till after the daily evening sacrifice, and burning of incense:  and after they have trimmed the lamps they begin to kill the paschal lambs until the end of the day.’  By this time of the day God foreshadowed the sufferings of Christ in the evening of times or in the last days, Heb 1:2; 1Peter 1:19,20: and about the same time of the day, when the lamb ordinarily died, HE died also, at the ninth hour; Mt 27:46-50.”

Verse 7: And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. Take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts. This was to be done by dipping a bunch of hyssop into the blood, and thus sprinkling it upon the posts,  Ex 12:22. That this sprinkling of the blood of the lamb was an emblem of the sacrifice and atonement made by the death of Jesus Christ, is most clearly intimated in the sacred writings, 1 Peter 1:2; Heb 9:13,14; 8:10.  It is remarkable that no blood was to be sprinkled on the threshold shows a reverent regard for the blood of Christ, that men should not tread under foot the Son of GOD, nor count the blood of the covenant wherewith they were sanctified an unholy thing; Hebrews 10:29.

 The Exodus And The Wilderness Journey

A. Redemption – deliverance from bondage Ex. 12:37-40
1. vs 35 – the Israelites obeyed the word of Moses, their leader
2. vs 36 – the Egyptians lent them jewels and cloths etc.
3. 600,000 men not counting children
4. the Israelites had been 430 years as slaves in Egypt
B. God’s protecting hand Exodus 13:17-18
C. God leads the way vs 21
1. pillar of a cloud by day
2. pillar of fire by night
D. Pharaoh’s heart is hardened Ex. 14:4-12
1. Vs 7-9 horsemen, chariots, the army etc. all come after the Israelites
2. Vs 10 they were afraid when they say the Egyptians
3. Vs 11-12 a pity party; fear; lack of faith
4. the children of Israel forgot about the might and the power of God – OR How soon
we forget. Vs 12 – better to live in Egypt than to die in the wilderness
a. Egypt is a type of the world
b. Israel in Egypt is a type of the unsaved person
c. God delivering Israel is a type of the unsaved person being saved or redeemed
d. Israel desiring to go back into Egypt is a type of a saved person wanting to go back
into the sinful ways that God has saved you out of
E. Crossing the Red Sea Exodus 14:13-31
1. Vs 13-14 – wait on the Lord “stand still” The Lord will fight for you
2. Vs 19-20 – we see God’s protection
3. Vs 21 – the Sea is rolled back – God working through Moses I Thess. 5:24
4. Vs 22 – Dry ground
5. Vs 26-28 – God, through Moses, drowns the Egyptians in the Red Sea. Again, God’s
protecting hand
6. Vs 29 – Israel was safe; the water was a wall = protection
7. Vs 31 – Israel saw; feared; and believed the Lord and His servant, Moses. As we will
see, this is short lived.

The March To Sinai – God Provides For The Needs Of His People – Exodus 15 to 18

A. Marah Exodus 15:22-27
1. waters were bitter vs 23; name Marah means “bitter” “angry” “discontented”
2. vs 24 – the people murmured
3. vs 25 – God directs Moses. God directs the man He calls. God always leads and
directs His people through a leader. Here, it was Moses, a prophet called of God.
In the New Testament, it is pastors called of God placed in the local church.
4. The tree – God directs Moses to a “tree”
a. the tree was cast into the waters
b. the bitter was made sweet
c. again, God provides what is necessary; the needs of His people

d. vs 27 – 12 wells of water; 12 Tribes of Israel

e. vs 26 – God gives instructions to Israel
C. Manna from Heaven – Exodus 16:1-22
1. God provided for His children’s daily needs
2. Manna was a life sustaining food. God gave specific instructions vs 4
3. the Children of Israel murmured against God’s leaders vs 2 Phil. 2:14
D. The Sabbath given to Israel vs 23-26

The Giving Of The Law Exodus 19-24
A. The Covenant established Exodus 19:1-24 to 24:11
1. The 10 Commandments chapter 20
2. Law concerning relationships Ex. 21:1 to 23:13
3. The Law concerning the 3 main feasts Ex. 23:14-19
a. Feast of Unleavened bread – Ex. 23:15 includes Passover
b. Feast of the Harvest or First fruits ( Pentecost ) vs 16
c. Feast of ingathering (Tabernacles) vs 16
d. Instructions on who can observe feasts; when and how vs 17-19
B. Law concerning the making of covenants with the heather in the Promised Land
Ex 23:20-33
1. don’t bow down -don’t serve false gods vs 24
2. overthrow them vs 24
3. God’s promises vs 27 – 31 Notice the words “I” referring to God
a. God sends fear to the enemies
b. God will destroy them
c. God sends hornets to drive the enemies out little by little
d. God sends the boundaries for the Children of Israel
C. Order of worship for when the Tabernacle is built

 The Tabernacle Exodus 25-40

A. Instructions on how to build it 25:1-7 to 27:8
1. Instructions for the offering to build the Tabernacle 25:1-7
2. Instructions on how to build it 25:8 to 27:1
3. Instructions to make the Brazen Altar 27:1-8
B. Instructions for the Court of the Tabernacle 27:9-19
C. Instructions for the lamp 27:20-21
D. Instructions for the priests 28:1 to 29:46
E. Final instructions chapter 30
1. Altar of Incense – the ransom money – the Bronze Laver
2. The Holy Anointing Oil – Holy Incense
F. The appointment of those to build the Tabernacle 31:1-11
G. Instructions about the Sabbath 31:12-17
H. Ten Commandments given to Moses from God written in stone 31:18

Concluding Thoughts On The Book Of Exodus

A. Moses on the Mount, receiving instructions from God
1. The Children of Israel resorted to doing their own thing.
2. Exodus 32:1-10, they resorted to the ways of the world, the worshipping of false Gods,
refusing to obey God instructions as given to them by God through God’ man, Moses.
Vs 7, they have “corrupted themselves”
3. Acts 7:38-42
4. The sin of the congregation – they refused to listen to God’s man
Proverbs 14:12 & 16:25 B. God gives instructions through a called leader; here is was Moses
B. God gives instructions through a called leader; here is was Moses
1. Exodus 40:19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 32
2. God’s people are to follow their God given and God called leader
a. pray for him
b. help him
c. work with him
d. follow his leading
C. When people are left to themselves, they tend to go astray
1. here in Exodus, we have an example of this
2. they did “their own thing” also Vs 25
D. A picture of God Grace Exodus 32:10-14
E. God disciplines His people for their sin Exodus 32:34-35; Hebrews 12:6