Old Testament Survey Deuteronomy

 The  Book Of  Deuteronomy

 Introduction: Deuteronomy means: Second Law. It is the Fifth Book of Moses; it doesn’t really give a “Second Law” but rather gives the same Law in more detail.  The Hebrew name for this Book was Haddebharim meaning “The Words.” This name is taken from the opening verse of the Book:  “These  be the words …”

It is also a Book of transitions and it marks them in a four fold way.

First:  Transition to a new generation, with the exception of Joshua, Caleb and Moses.

Second: Transition to a new possession or to a new land.

Third:  Transition to a  new way of life; a new experience – living in houses instead of tents. A settled life instead of wandering; milk and honey, the corn and wine of Caanan instead of  the diet of the wilderness.

Fourth: Transition  to a new revelation from God – His love. From Genesis to Numbers, the love of God is never spoken of. In  Deuteronomy  4:37 we read the wonderful words of God’s love to Israel.

The Central Message of the Book – Divine Faithfulness

 The Basic Fact of the Book – Chapter 6:4-5

The Basic Truth – Chapter 6:23   There  is a three – fold statement of this Truth:

  1. The fact – “He brought us out”
  2. The purpose behind the fact – “that He might bring us in.” We see the Grace of God here.

God was to bring them to a land “flowing with milk and honey.”

  1. The reason behind both the fact and the purpose – “he sware unto our fathers.” Here, we see

the  faithfulness of God: He was true to His Covenant.

The Basic requirement – Chapter 10:12-13. In the New Testament we read:  Matt. 22:37,

Mark 12:30  and Luke 10:27

The  word fear in this Deut. 10:12, means: In the Hebrew:  yare’, yaw-ray’  a primitive root; to fear; morally, to revere;  reverential trust with a hatred of evil.

The  word  require  means – “to demand”

Deuteronomy 10:12-13 deals  with loving obedience  that flows from the heart of the child of God;  a God who is glorious and faithful. Obedience is the “key note” of  almost every chapter.

The  word “dooccurs over 50 times.  Jehovah God is to be obeyed  because of  (1) what He has done for them  (2) what He is in Himself  (3) the perfection of His Law.

Moses is the human writer of this Book and Jesus also attested to that fact in Luke  24:44

The Divisions of the Book

1. Looking to the past – chaps. 1-11 2. Looking to the future – chaps. 12-34

Theological Themes of the Book of Deuteronomy

  1. The Faithfulness of God                             6. The Grace of God
  2. The Word of God                                         7. The coming Great Prophet of God
  3. The Person of God                                       8. The Will of God
  4. The Love of God                                           9. The Kings of God
  5. The Glory of God                                        10. The Israel of God

God’s dealings did not begin with the Covenant at Sinai and they did not end there.

Israel entered Canaan under the Sinaitic Covenant – a broken Covenant.  They broke it  with the Golden Calf and they continually broke it in the wilderness.

Once they entered into the Promised Land, they still continue to break God’s Covenant. That is why they never took possession of the Promised Land – continued disobedience.

God’s first dealings were before He met with Moses on Mt. Sinai. They were with the Abrahamic Covenant in Genesis 15.

It was confirmed with the oath of God with blood and is unconditional to Abraham and his descendants; it is an everlasting Covenant:  Genesis 17:5-8.

Look at Romans 4:13-25 and see how it applies to Christians today.

The Covenant on Sinai pointed toward a place – Sinai.

The Abrahamic Covenant pointed toward a Person – Christ – Galatians 3:16-17

The Law came 430  years AFTER  Abraham.

By the Abrahamic Covenant, God can and will still bless Israel in spite of their breaking the Law of Sinai.

God can also bless today’s Christians through Abraham’s seed – Jesus Christ.

Lessons to be learned from the Book of Deuteronomy – Reviewing The Wanderings

  1. Chapter 1:1-3 – Unbelief can doom a person’s life to aimless wanderings. An 11 day journey

became 40 years of wandering

  1. The mistake of thinking we can carry our burden’s alone. Moses forgot that God was carrying                                  the burden of Israel. Chap. 1:9 & 12. In his frustration, Moses appoints a council of 70 which                                  later became the Sanhedren; the council that sentenced Christ to death.
  1. The mistake of appointing a board to decide if they should obey God. Chap. 1:20-23; 30 & 32
  2. Faith in action leads to blessings from God. Only Joshua & Caleb believed and were allowed                                to enter the  Promised Land. They  were not swayed by the majority who died because of their                                unbelief.  Chap. 1:34-38

5. Don’t use your family for an excuse to be disobedient. The Israelites used their children for an

excuse; God allowed the  “little ones” to go in but not the disobedient parents. They died in

the wilderness.  Chap. 1:39

  1. Be careful to not run in circles when you serve the Lord. Disobedience causes procrastination.

We put off doing  what God’s  Word tells us to do; our disobedience causes us to run in circles

or – as we may say – running around like a chicken with her head cut off. Chap. 2:1-3

One of the Great Differences Between The Old Testament and the New

In the Old Testament – the emphasis is upon a Place

  1. A place of sacrifice 2. A place of worship

This emphasis upon a place gave focus to the religious life of the Nation of Israel; it fostered a sense of National unity.  To the Hebrew, a nearness to Jerusalem; to the Temple came to mean nearness to the presence of God.

In the New Testament – the emphasis is upon a Person

The emphasis is transferred from a place to a person. The Gospel went to the Gentiles and local churches were started all around the  known world. There is no longer a central location to be near God.  In Acts 8, in the account of the Ethiopian eunuch, the man had been to the right place – Jerusalem. He had been there for the right purpose – worship. He was reading the right Book – the Scripture. We read where he is returning home unsatisfied – what he needed was a new emphasis – on the Person – Jesus Christ. God sent Philip his way and Philip preached unto him, Jesus.  The man receives Christ as Saviour.

Looking To The Future  Chaps. 12-34

In the first part of this Book, Moses reiterates the Law – a review. He reminds them of how God had given it to Israel. Moses tells them of the consequences of their breaking of God’s Law and yet the faithfulness of God to keep His promises to bring Israel into the promised Land.  Now, the focus changes from their past to their future in the Promised Land.

The Law Interpreted For Their Future Land  chaps. 12-26

Here it deals with consecration – apostasy – judicial matters – governmental righteousness – guarantees of justice – authority of the sanctuary and the home – sanctity of the Divine order including: labor, marriage, the congregation, protection for the weak and the sanctity of the individual.

Sanctions – Chapters 27-30

We find what God approves of and what he does not approve of. Chapter 30 tells us of God’s promise of restoration.

The Passing Of The Torch  Chapters 31-34

Chap. 31 – The charge of Moses to Joshua and the Levites. Verse 23, Moses words to Joshua.

Verses 24-30  Moses instructs the Levites

Chap. 33 – The blessing of the Tribes of Israel

Chap. 34 – The death of  Moses

  1. Moses could see the land but not enter into it vs 4
  2. Moses was 120 years old – vs 7
  3. The human writer of chapter 34 is Moses. He writes of his death as it was given to him by God in the same way God gave any prophecy to any prophet.
  1. Moses is the only man that God buried – vs 6

This ends the writing of the Pentateuch – also called by the Jews the Torah – the First Five Books Of Moses

Brief Summary of Moses’ Life

  1. He spent 40 years in Egypt
  2. He spent 40 years in Midian
  3. He spent 40 years leading the Children of Israel  He was a man of faith – Hebrews 11:23-29
  1. He appeared with Christ and Elijah (Elias) on the Mount of transfiguration – Matthew 17:3;                           Mark 9:4, Luke 9:30
  1. He was Israel’s greatest prophet – Numbers 34:10
  2. Moses is an outstanding type of Christ                                                                                                                                   a.  Moses was born and was sought to be put to death by Pharaoh – Jesus was born and sought                                 to be put to death by King Herod                                                                                                                                          b. Moses appointed by God to deliver Israel out of bondage – Christ was sent to deliver all Israel and all who would believe, from the bondage of sin                                                                                                                                    c. Moses was sent to lead Israel towards Caanan – Jesus came to lead us to heaven.                                                        Moses lead them to see the Promised  Land – Jesus takes us into Heaven                                                                  d. Moses gave the Law – Jesus fulfilled the Law and gave the Gospel                                                                              e. Moses was the mediator of the first covenant – Jesus is the mediator of the second covenant                                f. Moses did many wonderful miracles – Jesus did many wonderful miracles. Both were by the power of God and to show His power and glory and confirm His doctrine                                                                                                g. Moses instituted the Passover – Jesus is the Passover                                                                                            h. Moses was a faithful servant – Jesus was faithful in all thing                                                                                        i. Moses fasted 40 days and nights in the wilderness before delivering the Law- Jesus fasted 40 days in the            wilderness before preaching the Gospel
  1. No man knows where he grave is Numbers 34:6 – somewhere in the land of Moab
  2. The devil and Michael the Archangel disputed or contended about his body Jude vs 9

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